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Machine Learning in Simple Words: Statistical Significance Tests

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Developing Intuition: “Statistically Significant” or “By Chance”?

Statistical tests are used to determine how likely are observed relationships between two variables or groups, not a result of some random guess, luck, erratic fluctuations, random noise or sampling error, but due to the fact that they really are related to one another. It is a mathematical way of stating if we have enough evidence to reject a ‘thought’(or in statistical jargon, a ‘Hypothesis’) that a certain relationship between two variables just happened by chance.

Figure Source: Agresti and Franklin, Statistics: The Art and Science of Learning from Data (p. 468)

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Machine Learning in Simple Words: Decision Tree Series

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Decision trees are one of the most widely used machine learning algorithms used today. In this part, let us learn at a very high level, how they work.

PART 1: A visual guide towards their working

Example Outline:

Suppose we are trying to find out whether a patient is a positive case of a certain disease, using the length and width of the suspect virus found in his/her blood. We obtained test results of 16 patients. Since decision tree is a form of ‘supervised learning’, we will first have to train the decision tree model by providing it with the sets of virus lengths and widths that resulted in positive casesand the ones which did not, before it is able to do predictions on its own. Upon plotting this data obtained from each patient, let us assume we landed up with a graph shown below:
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Tale of Angel Fitrous and Imam Hussain

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It has been narrated by Imam Jafar (as) that a multitude of Angels led by their Chief, Angel Fitrous, circumambulate the shrine of Imam Hussain (Prophet's beloved grandson) while sending him salutations.  Angel Fitrous was once banished by Allah but nobody really knows why. Some say that he had gotten arrogant due to his beautiful wings and status among the angels. Others say that he had delayed an order that Allah had asked him to execute. Angel Fitrous managed to receive the mercy of Allah (the Most Merciful), on the blessed day when Prophet Muhammad’s (as) grandchild, Hussain (as) was born. Here is this beautiful story….

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Chemical Engineering as a Career!

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Chemical Engineering
Last May, chemical engineering seniors at a large university took their last final examination, attended their graduation ceremonies, flipped their tassels and threw their mortarboards in the air, enjoyed their farewell parties, said goodbye to one another and promised faithfully to stay in touch, and headed off in an impressive variety of geographical and career directions.
You all must be probably thinking about following in the footsteps of those graduates – spending the next few years learning to be a chemical
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